Blog Log 5


CO 350

Spring, 13



Blog Post 5:

Going Global: Public Relations and its Environment

Be able to answer the following questions, in your own words (simply reading a quote is no guarantee you understand the quote)


“A Theoretical Framework for Global Public Relations Research and Practice”

 Instructions for access

  • Go to mycampus and “library” tab
  • Click on “databases”
  • Find “netlibrary” and click on that
  • In the search bar, type “Global Public Relations handbook”
  • Click on “view this ebook”
  • Find chapter 1, A Theoretical Framework for Global Public Relations Research and Practice
  • Read the sections, and synthesize the ideas:


  1. What do the authors mean by “environmental variables”? (p. 1)

Environmental variables are factors of a country’s system that effect the way that public relations is practiced within it.  These factors can be political, social, economic, and cultural.  The name, practice, and training of public relations in these fields can all be effected by these particular variables.


  1. How does the political system influence how pr is practiced?

A nation’s political system dictates whether or not the government values public opinion.  If it does, the practicing system tends to be the two-way symmetrical system in which the government values the opinion and uses it to drive forward it mission while relaying messages back to society.  However, in countries where government does not value the opinion of the masses, there tends to be a one-way model where propaganda is created and distributed without caring for relationship management.


  1. What does level of economic development have to do with PR?

The higher economic development, and the higher the level of economic freedom lead to a more private-sector based public relations.  When there is more freedom in the economy, businesses will have a more thriving public relations department.  In countries where the economy is part of the public sector, the government is the main, or only, source of public relations information in regards to businesses or economics.

  1. What two types of culture are indicated here?


  1. What seems to be the idea of media reach and media access?
  2. Speculation: how might these two concepts extend to social media? (that is, this essay was written before the advent of social media, but what do you think they would say about it?)


Mycampus link: “Is there such a thing as European public relations”?

  1. Can we say that PR is practiced one way throughout all of Europe? Why or why not?

No, the European Union is comprised of 51 different countries with 23 different official languages.  They each have their own individual culture and system of governments.  Mild tensions still remain between the capitalist east and the communist west.  These different countries all practice business in different ways.  In some countries, public relations degrees are not even valued because of the belief that it can be learned in on-the-job experience.  Some countries value press-release-based PR, while others see it as a journalistic function rather than a business function.

  1. Was there any sort of common heritage in the way PR developed in Europe?

Although the different countries of the EU have different persp

ectives and practices of public relations, PR evolved from a wartime propaganda strategy.  Throughout the 20th century, Europe was war torn throughout WWI, WWII, and the Cold War.  This propaganda through media relations developed the practice of PR.


  1. T/F: The term “public relations” is commonly used in European countries. Explain

False, the term public relations is rarely used in Europe.  Most countries have some variation of the word ‘communication’ as their label for the practice.  Other examples include a focus on relations and ‘affiliation work.’  It is hard for Europeans to define the practice since it is named differently and practiced differently throughout the countries.


  1. The countries that were formly communist tend to practice PR in terms of which of Grunig’s four models

These countries tend to use the press/agency publicity model, focused mostly on press releases to distribute information and create propaganda.


Blog Log 4

CO 350

Spring, 13



Blog Post 4

The Relational Perspective on PR



Be able to answer the following questions, in your own words (simply reading a quote is no guarantee you understand the quote)


Mycampus file: “Theory of Relationship Management”

  1. What      is the basic idea of the relationship management perspective

The basic idea of the relationship management perspective is that the goal of public relations for an organization is to build and maintain relationships between organizations and its publics.  It is viewed as the “management” function in charge of those relationships.


  1. Relationship      management is “consistent” with which of Grunig’s four models? (p. 181)

Two-way symmetrical model, by building and maintaining these relationships through a symbiotic goal-orientation, the companies are engaging in active two-way communication.  This communication focuses on what publics feel is necessary to the organization and makes such changes or relays information back to those publics that changes the original viewpoint.  Thus the relationship is symmetric and mutually beneficial.


  1. According      to Broom and Dozier, does the relational perspective focus on      communication? (p. 183)

This answer depends on how you want to define the word “focus.”  For Broom and Dozier, communication is a tool to execute proper relationship management.  When this statement is further analyzed in the article, it is said that in order to measure the effectiveness of communication in the relationship, the behavior of the publics for which it is intended should be measured.  Communication is very important to the relational model, two-way communication that is, but the responding behavior of the publics is just as essential.


  1. According      to Ledingham and Bruning, what is meant by “relationship”? (184)

A relationship is a “state” between an organization and its publics by which the actions of one party affect the social or economic status of the other.  It is also one in which there is an exchange of resources.


  1. What      are the 5 dimensions of relationships – can you explain these? (p. 185)

Trust—the organization must keep its word about the actions it intends to do when those actions are related to its publics

Openness—communicating the organization’s future plans with its publics

Involvement—the organization must show that it has an interest in the betterment of the community

Investment—the organization must invest in the betterment of the community

Commitment –the organization must commit to the welfare of the community


  1. True      or False (according to Ledingham): (Axioms,      p. 195)
    1. the       proper focus of the domain of public relations is relationships, not       communication  TRUE
    2. communication       alone can sustain relationships        FALSE
    3. the       meeting of expectations is critical to maintaining a relationship  TRUE


Mycampus link: “Revisiting the continuum of types”

  1. p. 2.      In your own words, explain Hung’s view of OPRs

Hung’s view explains OPRs as a state between an organization and its publics in which the status of one public is interdependent with another.  Therefore, the actions of the organization affect the public, and the actions of the public affect the organization.  This requires the relationship to undergo constant maintenance and upkeep on both ends.

  1. In      your own words, describe the six types of relationship

Exploitive Relationships—One party is taking advantage of the other party.  This means that the party that is being taken advantage of was expecting something from the other party that is not being fulfilled.

Manipulative Relationships—In a manipulative relationship, the organization knows what the public wants, so it portrays the front of being able to fulfill that need while still carrying on with its hidden initiatives.

Symbiotic Relationships—Two parties are interdependent.  This relationship can take place within an organization and departments.  For example, in a college or university, Admissions and Financial Aid are interdependent in determining the status of their incoming students. 

Contractual—expectations from both parties are laid out in the beginning of the relationship, although that is not always a guarantee for an unequal partnership.

Covenental—these relationships are aimed at a common goal between the two parties.  This means that one party may provide feedback on the other’s actions while the other listens and takes those into account.  This can happen on both sides of the relationship.

Mutual Communal—both parties in the relationship expect reciprocity and show a mutual concern for the well-being of both organizations.

  1. What      is a “win win” relationship?

A “win win” relationship is either an exchange relationship, a covenantal relationship, or a mutual communal relationship.  Those are relationships that show an equal concern from both parties about the well-being of the other’s.  Both parties win because both parties are invested in the relationship.

  1. What      relationship type has the most concern for self interest

An exploitive relationship has the most concern for self-interest.  These relationships are ones in which only one-party is benefiting while leading the other party to believe that they will eventually gain some benefit that they have no intention of providing.

  1. What      relationship type has the most concern for the other’s interest

A one-sided communal relationship has the most concern for the other’s interest.  In a one-sided communal relationship, the party that is caring for the other party’s interest knows that they will not be reaping the benefits of a mutual communal relationship, but they continue the relationship out of concern for the other’s welfare.


  1. p. 9.      What kind of relationships don’t exist in China, according to the research

According to research, Exploitive and manipulative relationships are not in existence in China.  The publics of these organization are able to find out if they are being exploited and manipulated so they do not remain in these relationships for long periods of time. 


  1. p. 11.      What is the most common type of OPR in China?

Communal, exchange, and covenantal relationships were the most common in China because they were in the win-win zone for organizations and their publics.  Since most publics are smart enough to know when they are in a beneficial relationship, the kinds that are mutual exist more commonly than others.

Blog Log 3

CO 350





BP 3





Turney, “Image and PR” (mycampus link)

  1. What is the idea of image?

The idea of image is what idea that a corporation or organization wants to portray of who they are.  Sometimes that image can be different than what the company actually is.

  1. Why do people think image is bad?

Some people believe that image is never really real because an image is constructed.  Since public relations professionals work in image management to improve the way a company is seen by its publics.  But, by being constructed, the image is not truly genuine and many find this deceiving.

  1. How does Turney defend the idea of image?

He compares image to building a house.  When architects were building the first high rise apartments in New York City, they compared these new dwellings to ancient architecture.  That is how they were modeling their image.  He argues that this did not make them good or bad, it depended on how they were made and who made them.  This is the same for image managers, if the people who are in charge are deceitful, then the purpose of image management is to deceive, while most are looking to portray an honest image.


Gilpin “Organizational Image Construction” (pp. 265-8)

  1. What is the idea of “reputation”?

                          The scholars who have written this article classified the idea of reputation as “as a combination of organizational self-presentation, representations by media and other third parties, and stakeholder perceptions.”

  1. What is the difference between intended image and construed image

Intended image is the image that an organization wants to convey to its stakeholders.  Construed image is the image that the organization thinks that its stakeholders currently have of them.

  1. what is “image construction”?

Image construction is the building of an identity of a company to its stakeholders.  It is an intentional process used by the organization to preserve the image that stakeholders have of the company.

  1. From what you can tell, what does she seem to think is the relationship between image and reputation ?

The author thinks that image has a direct effect on reputation.  Meaning, that the image that is either the intended image or the construed image is directly affection the company’s reputation amongst its stakeholders.


Image Repair Theory: an overview (mycampus link)

  1. Explain the basic concept of image repair theory

The basic concept of image repair theory is that it is a process in which the company is responding to an attack.  That attack must say two things, that the organization is directly responsible for the action for which it is being attacked, and secondly, this action is offensive. 

  1. Summarize, in your own words, the five basic strategies that (according to Benoit), organizations use to restore their image; be able to indicate the different versions of these strategies

1)      Denial—the company denies the allegations of the attack.  The text used an example of Pepsi attacking Coca-Cola about subsidizing to McDonald’s.  Coca-Cola denied Pepsi’s allegations.

2)      Evasion of Responsibility—this process involves shifting the responsibility to a third party.  The text uses an example of somebody missing a meeting.  Their response of “I did not know the meeting was that day at that time.”  Thus, this shifts the responsibility to a third party.

3)      Reduce Offensiveness—The text gives several examples for reducing offensiveness.  One was the Exxon-Valdez oil spill.  Exxon responded by letting the public know that they have taken immediate action to stop the spill.  They also lessened the number of wildlife that had been killed in reports.  Another example is Coca-Cola in the above example.  Coca-Cola responded by attacking its attackers for its false allegations.

4)      Corrective Action—to correct the actions of the attack. The text uses the example of AT&T when it had a breakdown in wireless service.  They responded by telling the public that they had taken corrective action.

5)      Mortification—the text describes this as apologizing and begging for forgiveness.

Blog Log 2

CO 350

Spring, 13



Blog Post  2

Grunig: Models of Public Relations:”

the 4 models and 2 worldviews


On your blog, post answers to the following questions


  1. describe the four models

a)      The press agency/publicity model is a one-way communication model in which the organization seeks to communicate to its publics, but it does not seek communication from its publics through research and two-way communication.  This model seeks publicity in any way possible. 

b)      The public information model is also a one-way communication model.  This model sees public relations specialists as journalists who share honest information with the media, however they choose not to release any negative information.

c)      Two-way asymmetric model is a model in which research and communication is performed to understand how to disseminate information to an organizations publics in a way that will allow the crowd to gain a favorable view without having to change an organization’s practices.

d)     Two-way symmetric model is a model in which research is performed to understand an organization’s publics and communication and negotiation occurs between the two in order for both sides to gain a favorable outcome from the relationship.

  1. The issue of popularity of the 4 models:
    1. Which is most popular?

The press-agentry model is the overall most popular, although many organizations use a mixture of the asymmetrical models.

    1. Which is most popular in corporations

The two-way asymmetrical model is most popular in corporations.  This is the model in which research is conducted of the publics of an organization however, that information is used to select which information to present to the public without having to change its practices.

    1. Which is most popular in governmental agencies?

Governmental agencies use the public information model most commonly, however that information may be slightly flawed because the public information model is the hardest to measure as a model pure to its own without a mixture.

  1. describe the 2 worldviews:
    1. What are the presuppositions of the asymmetrical worldview?

The members of the organization see the organization differently than the outside world sees it, information flows out of the organization, but nothing flows into it, cost-efficiency is more important than innovation, the members of the organization have an attitude of superiority to its publics when it comes to knowledge, change is frowned upon, and tradition is celebrated

    1. What are the presuppositions of the symmetrical worldview?

Communication leads to a better understanding between an organization and its publics, the whole of a system is greater than the sum of its parts, all parts of the system are interdependent, an open system, autonomy, equality, and innovation

    1. which of the 4 models fit into each?

The press-agency and two-way symmetrical model fit into the symmetrical world view while the public information and the two-way asymmetrical fit into the asymmetrical worldview.

    1. Which is the dominant worldview?

The asymmetrical worldview.

  1. What worldview does Grunig advocate? Why?

Grunig advocates for a symmetrical worldview because that opens the realm for communication between an organization and its publics and that leads to better understanding and ethical public relations.